jdk1.8源码读解(一)—— ArrayList

写在前面

看书、看博客永远是看别人替你总结的东西,想根本弄懂Java我觉得还是要看完Java的源码。jdk是比较经典的一个Java版本,Oracle在该版本加入lambda表达式、新日期API和溢出hotspot永生代很多功能,因此选择该版本作为阅读版本。

为减少篇幅,并没有把所有代码全部粘贴至文中,但是会尽力介绍到每一个方法。

概要

我们从rt.jar包中最常用的数据结构类开始分析,rt全称runtime,是java的核心jar包。

ArrayList底层是数组队列,相当于动态数组。与 Java 中的数组相比,它的容量能动态增长。在添加大量元素前,应用程序可以使用ensureCapacity操作来增加 ArrayList 实例的容量。这可以减少递增式再分配的数量。它是线程不安全的,允许元素为null。

ArrayList位于java.util包下,先看一下它的关系图

test

ArrayList继承自AbstractList类,并且实现了RandomAccessCloneableSerializableList接口,即支持随机访问,克隆,序列化。
如果深入查看,会发现RandomAccessCloneableSerializable这三个都是空接口,没有指定任何方法,这样的接口叫标识接口,主要作用是为了标识,表明该类实现了哪些功能。这样做的好处是其他方法调用该类对象时,直接查看该类有实现某些接口来做些判断。

构造方法

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/**
* Default initial capacity.
*/
//默认的初始大小
private static final int DEFAULT_CAPACITY = 10;

/**
* Shared empty array instance used for empty instances.
*/
//默认的空实例
private static final Object[] EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA = {};

/**
* Shared empty array instance used for default sized empty instances. We
* distinguish this from EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA to know how much to inflate when
* first element is added.
*/
//用于默认大小空实例的共享空数组实例
//我们把它从EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA数组中区分出来,以知道在添加第一个元素时容量需要增加多少
private static final Object[] DEFAULTCAPACITY_EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA = {};

/**
* The array buffer into which the elements of the ArrayList are stored.
* The capacity of the ArrayList is the length of this array buffer. Any
* empty ArrayList with elementData == DEFAULTCAPACITY_EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA
* will be expanded to DEFAULT_CAPACITY when the first element is added.
*/
//存储ArrayList数据的数组
transient Object[] elementData; // non-private to simplify nested class access

/**
* The size of the ArrayList (the number of elements it contains).
*
* @serial
*/
//ArrayList的大小
private int size;

/**
* Constructs an empty list with the specified initial capacity.
*
* @param initialCapacity the initial capacity of the list
* @throws IllegalArgumentException if the specified initial capacity
* is negative
*/
public ArrayList(int initialCapacity) {
if (initialCapacity > 0) {
this.elementData = new Object[initialCapacity];
} else if (initialCapacity == 0) {
this.elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;
} else {
throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal Capacity: "+
initialCapacity);
}
}

/**
* Constructs an empty list with an initial capacity of ten.
*/
public ArrayList() {
this.elementData = DEFAULTCAPACITY_EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;
}

/**
* Constructs a list containing the elements of the specified
* collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's
* iterator.
*
* @param c the collection whose elements are to be placed into this list
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
*/
//将其他Collection类转化为ArrayList类
public ArrayList(Collection<? extends E> c) {
Object[] a = c.toArray();
if ((size = a.length) != 0) {
if (c.getClass() == ArrayList.class) {
elementData = a;
} else {
elementData = Arrays.copyOf(a, size, Object[].class);
}
} else {
// replace with empty array.
elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;
}
}

ArrayList总共有三个构造函数,第一个参数给定初始容量,源码很好理解,当给定容量为0时,其elementData为被赋为空。DEFAULTCAPACITY_EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA和EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA没有啥本质上的区别,只是为了区分这两种空数组对应不同情况的初始化。

其他API

我们对其他api一个一个分析

trimToSize()

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//将list的容量变为当前大小,利用该操作可以最小化一个ArrayList的存储消耗
/**
* Trims the capacity of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance to be the
* list's current size. An application can use this operation to minimize
* the storage of an <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance.
*/
public void trimToSize() {
modCount++;
if (size < elementData.length) {
elementData = (size == 0)
? EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA
: Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
}
}

modCount是一个特殊的变量,继承自AbstractList,用来记录修改次数,监测迭代器迭代的时候是否发生修改。

ensureCapacity

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/**
* Increases the capacity of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance, if
* necessary, to ensure that it can hold at least the number of elements
* specified by the minimum capacity argument.
*
* @param minCapacity the desired minimum capacity
*/
//如果有必要,增加ArrayList的容量以确保它能够容纳minCapacity指定数量的数据
public void ensureCapacity(int minCapacity) {
//判断当前List是否为空,从而确定minExpand的值
int minExpand = (elementData != DEFAULTCAPACITY_EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA)
// any size if not default element table
? 0
// larger than default for default empty table. It's already
// supposed to be at default size.
: DEFAULT_CAPACITY;
//如果minCapacity>minExpand,那我们就必要对List进行扩容
if (minCapacity > minExpand) {
ensureExplicitCapacity(minCapacity);
}
}

该函数主要是用于 防止一瞬间存储大量数据,导致不停扩容(之后的函数会提到)产生的时间消耗 , 通过该函数可以直接扩容到用户指定的容量。

ensureExplicitCapacity

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private void ensureExplicitCapacity(int minCapacity) {
modCount++;

// overflow-conscious code
if (minCapacity - elementData.length > 0)
grow(minCapacity);
}

要求的精确容量只有不小于现有容量时,才会发生grow(扩容)。

grow

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/**
* The maximum size of array to allocate.
* Some VMs reserve some header words in an array.
* Attempts to allocate larger arrays may result in
* OutOfMemoryError: Requested array size exceeds VM limit
*/
//分配的最大数组大小
private static final int MAX_ARRAY_SIZE = Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8;

/**
* Increases the capacity to ensure that it can hold at least the
* number of elements specified by the minimum capacity argument.
*
* @param minCapacity the desired minimum capacity
*/
private void grow(int minCapacity) {
// overflow-conscious code
int oldCapacity = elementData.length;
int newCapacity = oldCapacity + (oldCapacity >> 1);
if (newCapacity - minCapacity < 0)
newCapacity = minCapacity;
if (newCapacity - MAX_ARRAY_SIZE > 0)
newCapacity = hugeCapacity(minCapacity);
// minCapacity is usually close to size, so this is a win:
elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, newCapacity);
}
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public static <T> T[] copyOf(T[] original, int newLength) {
return (T[]) copyOf(original, newLength, original.getClass());
}

public static <T,U> T[] copyOf(U[] original, int newLength, Class<? extends T[]> newType) {
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
T[] copy = ((Object)newType == (Object)Object[].class)
? (T[]) new Object[newLength]
: (T[]) Array.newInstance(newType.getComponentType(), newLength);
System.arraycopy(original, 0, copy, 0,
Math.min(original.length, newLength));
return copy;
}

int newCapacity = oldCapacity + (oldCapacity >> 1),所以 ArrayList 每次扩容之后容量都会变为原来的 1.5 倍左右。如果newCapacity大于规定的最大size,会被通过hugeCapacity重新赋值。
再通过调用Arrays.copyof方法复制出新的数组给elementData。

hugeCapacity

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private static int hugeCapacity(int minCapacity) {
if (minCapacity < 0) // overflow
throw new OutOfMemoryError();
return (minCapacity > MAX_ARRAY_SIZE) ?
Integer.MAX_VALUE :
MAX_ARRAY_SIZE;
}

如果minCapacity小于0,说明已经溢出,导致符号位置一,所以为负。

size

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/**
* Returns the number of elements in this list.
*
* @return the number of elements in this list
*/
public int size() {
return size;
}

返回ArrayList大小。

isEmpty

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/**
* Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements.
*
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements
*/
public boolean isEmpty() {
return size == 0;
}

判空函数

contains

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/**
* Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list contains the specified element.
* More formally, returns <tt>true</tt> if and only if this list contains
* at least one element <tt>e</tt> such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;e==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(e))</tt>.
*
* @param o element whose presence in this list is to be tested
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains the specified element
*/
public boolean contains(Object o) {
return indexOf(o) >= 0;
}

通过indexOf函数查找目标下标,下标为负即不存在。

indexOf

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/**
* Returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified element
* in this list, or -1 if this list does not contain the element.
* More formally, returns the lowest index <tt>i</tt> such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>,
* or -1 if there is no such index.
*/
public int indexOf(Object o) {
if (o == null) {
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
if (elementData[i]==null)
return i;
} else {
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
if (o.equals(elementData[i]))
return i;
}
return -1;
}

查找目标在ArrayList中第一次出现的位置。

lastIndexOf

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/**
* Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified element
* in this list, or -1 if this list does not contain the element.
* More formally, returns the highest index <tt>i</tt> such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>,
* or -1 if there is no such index.
*/
public int lastIndexOf(Object o) {
if (o == null) {
for (int i = size-1; i >= 0; i--)
if (elementData[i]==null)
return i;
} else {
for (int i = size-1; i >= 0; i--)
if (o.equals(elementData[i]))
return i;
}
return -1;
}

indexOf正巧相反,返回目标在ArrayList最后一次出现的位置。

clone

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/**
* Returns a shallow copy of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance. (The
* elements themselves are not copied.)
*
* @return a clone of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance
*/
public Object clone() {
try {
ArrayList<?> v = (ArrayList<?>) super.clone();
v.elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
v.modCount = 0;
return v;
} catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
// this shouldn't happen, since we are Cloneable
throw new InternalError(e);
}
}

克隆函数,可以发现ArrayList克隆并不去调用存储对象的克隆,也就是‘浅拷贝’。

toArray

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/**
* Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list
* in proper sequence (from first to last element).
*
* <p>The returned array will be "safe" in that no references to it are
* maintained by this list. (In other words, this method must allocate
* a new array). The caller is thus free to modify the returned array.
*
* <p>This method acts as bridge between array-based and collection-based
* APIs.
*
* @return an array containing all of the elements in this list in
* proper sequence
*/
public Object[] toArray() {
return Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
}


/**
* Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in proper
* sequence (from first to last element); the runtime type of the returned
* array is that of the specified array. If the list fits in the
* specified array, it is returned therein. Otherwise, a new array is
* allocated with the runtime type of the specified array and the size of
* this list.
*
* <p>If the list fits in the specified array with room to spare
* (i.e., the array has more elements than the list), the element in
* the array immediately following the end of the collection is set to
* <tt>null</tt>. (This is useful in determining the length of the
* list <i>only</i> if the caller knows that the list does not contain
* any null elements.)
*
* @param a the array into which the elements of the list are to
* be stored, if it is big enough; otherwise, a new array of the
* same runtime type is allocated for this purpose.
* @return an array containing the elements of the list
* @throws ArrayStoreException if the runtime type of the specified array
* is not a supertype of the runtime type of every element in
* this list
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified array is null
*/
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public <T> T[] toArray(T[] a) {
if (a.length < size)
// Make a new array of a's runtime type, but my contents:
return (T[]) Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size, a.getClass());
System.arraycopy(elementData, 0, a, 0, size);
if (a.length > size)
a[size] = null;
return a;
}

返回elementData数组的拷贝,并可以把它强转成用户定义的类型,也因此加上@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")注解。

get

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/**
* Checks if the given index is in range. If not, throws an appropriate
* runtime exception. This method does *not* check if the index is
* negative: It is always used immediately prior to an array access,
* which throws an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if index is negative.
*/
private void rangeCheck(int index) {
if (index >= size)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
}

private String outOfBoundsMsg(int index) {
return "Index: "+index+", Size: "+size;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
E elementData(int index) {
return (E) elementData[index];
}

/**
* Returns the element at the specified position in this list.
*
* @param index index of the element to return
* @return the element at the specified position in this list
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public E get(int index) {
rangeCheck(index);

return elementData(index);
}

获取下标为index的数据,先检查边界(index为负会在elementData函数中报错),然后通过elementData返回值。

set

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public E set(int index, E element) {
rangeCheck(index);

E oldValue = elementData(index);
elementData[index] = element;
return oldValue;
}

add

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/**
* Appends the specified element to the end of this list.
*
* @param e element to be appended to this list
* @return <tt>true</tt> (as specified by {@link Collection#add})
*/
public boolean add(E e) {
ensureCapacityInternal(size + 1); // Increments modCount!!
elementData[size++] = e;
return true;
}

首先确保ArrayList容量足够,然后进行赋值。

ensureCapabilityInternal

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private static int calculateCapacity(Object[] elementData, int minCapacity) {
if (elementData == DEFAULTCAPACITY_EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA) {
return Math.max(DEFAULT_CAPACITY, minCapacity);
}
return minCapacity;
}

private void ensureCapacityInternal(int minCapacity) {
ensureExplicitCapacity(calculateCapacity(elementData, minCapacity));
}

remove

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/**
* Removes the element at the specified position in this list.
* Shifts any subsequent elements to the left (subtracts one from their
* indices).
*
* @param index the index of the element to be removed
* @return the element that was removed from the list
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public E remove(int index) {
rangeCheck(index);

modCount++;
E oldValue = elementData(index);

int numMoved = size - index - 1;
if (numMoved > 0)
System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,
numMoved);
elementData[--size] = null; // clear to let GC do its work

return oldValue;
}


/**
* Removes the first occurrence of the specified element from this list,
* if it is present. If the list does not contain the element, it is
* unchanged. More formally, removes the element with the lowest index
* <tt>i</tt> such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>
* (if such an element exists). Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list
* contained the specified element (or equivalently, if this list
* changed as a result of the call).
*
* @param o element to be removed from this list, if present
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contained the specified element
*/
public boolean remove(Object o) {
if (o == null) {
for (int index = 0; index < size; index++)
if (elementData[index] == null) {
fastRemove(index);
return true;
}
} else {
for (int index = 0; index < size; index++)
if (o.equals(elementData[index])) {
fastRemove(index);
return true;
}
}
return false;
}

/*
* Private remove method that skips bounds checking and does not
* return the value removed.
*/
private void fastRemove(int index) {
modCount++;
int numMoved = size - index - 1;
if (numMoved > 0)
System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,
numMoved);
elementData[--size] = null; // clear to let GC do its work
}

调用remove(int index)函数会将旧值返回。
由于是数组,所以删除完后会将之后的数组前移。

clear

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public void clear() {
modCount++;

// clear to let GC do its work
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
elementData[i] = null;

size = 0;
}

清空数组,是通过遍历而不是直接置换成空数组。

addAll

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public boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c) {
Object[] a = c.toArray();
int numNew = a.length;
ensureCapacityInternal(size + numNew); // Increments modCount
System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, size, numNew);
size += numNew;
return numNew != 0;
}

public boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c) {
rangeCheckForAdd(index);

Object[] a = c.toArray();
int numNew = a.length;
ensureCapacityInternal(size + numNew); // Increments modCount

int numMoved = size - index;
if (numMoved > 0)
System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + numNew,
numMoved);

System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, index, numNew);
size += numNew;
return numNew != 0;
}

private void rangeCheckForAdd(int index) {
if (index > size || index < 0)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
}

ArrayList提供了两种addAll方法,一个指定下标,一个默认在队尾添加。指定下标会先检查边界。
两者都会先确定容量,对数组进行扩容,在进行赋值操作。
ps:rangeCheckrangeCheckForAdd两个函数是不一样的,rangeCheck只判断了上界,下界交给了数组自身去判断,而用到rangeCheckForAdd的函数并不会用到数组自带的下标判断,所以需要判断下下界。

removeRange

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protected void removeRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
modCount++;
int numMoved = size - toIndex;
System.arraycopy(elementData, toIndex, elementData, fromIndex,
numMoved);

// clear to let GC do its work
int newSize = size - (toIndex-fromIndex);
for (int i = newSize; i < size; i++) {
elementData[i] = null;
}
size = newSize;
}

数组左移复制后,将之后的元素全部置空。

removeAll,retainAll

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public boolean removeAll(Collection<?> c) {
Objects.requireNonNull(c);
return batchRemove(c, false);
}

public boolean retainAll(Collection<?> c) {
Objects.requireNonNull(c);
return batchRemove(c, true);
}

private boolean batchRemove(Collection<?> c, boolean complement) {
final Object[] elementData = this.elementData;
int r = 0, w = 0;
boolean modified = false;
try {
for (; r < size; r++)
if (c.contains(elementData[r]) == complement)
elementData[w++] = elementData[r];
} finally {
// Preserve behavioral compatibility with AbstractCollection,
// even if c.contains() throws.
if (r != size) {
System.arraycopy(elementData, r,
elementData, w,
size - r);
w += size - r;
}
if (w != size) {
// clear to let GC do its work
for (int i = w; i < size; i++)
elementData[i] = null;
modCount += size - w;
size = w;
modified = true;
}
}
return modified;
}

retainAll是让elementData仅保存提供的collection里的元素,而removeAll正巧相反,删除提供的collection里的元素。
batchRemove中通过一个boolean即区分开来(太巧妙了!)
为了加快处理速度,先定义了一个final的elementData数组(当final变量是基本数据类型以及String类型时,如果在编译期间能知道它的确切值,则编译器会把它当做编译期常量使用。也就是说在用到该final变量的地方,相当于直接访问的这个常量,不需要在运行时确定。这种和C语言中的宏替换有点像。变量被final修饰,会被当做编译器常量,所以在使用到该变量的地方会直接将变量替换为它的值。)
接着遍历elementData数组,通过判断collection中是否存在该元素而判断元素的存留。
由于c.contains可能会抛出异常,存在r!=size的情况,未处理到的元素默认保留在数组内。
如果正常处理结束,将超过size的元素置为空,等待gc回收内存。

writeObject,readObject

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private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
throws java.io.IOException{
// Write out element count, and any hidden stuff
int expectedModCount = modCount;
s.defaultWriteObject();

// Write out size as capacity for behavioural compatibility with clone()
s.writeInt(size);

// Write out all elements in the proper order.
for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {
s.writeObject(elementData[i]);
}

if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
throws java.io.IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;

// Read in size, and any hidden stuff
s.defaultReadObject();

// Read in capacity
s.readInt(); // ignored

if (size > 0) {
// be like clone(), allocate array based upon size not capacity
int capacity = calculateCapacity(elementData, size);
SharedSecrets.getJavaOISAccess().checkArray(s, Object[].class, capacity);
ensureCapacityInternal(size);

Object[] a = elementData;
// Read in all elements in the proper order.
for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {
a[i] = s.readObject();
}
}
}

这两个完成了ArrayListObjectOutputStream之间的相互转换,也就是让ArrayList有了序列化的功能。
writeObject的过程通过CAS的方法,保证操作的原子性。
由于自己还没阅读序列化相关代码s.readInt()SharedSecrets.getJavaOISAccess().checkArray(s, Object[].class, capacity);还不太懂其用处。

lambda函数

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@Override
public void forEach(Consumer<? super E> action) {
Objects.requireNonNull(action);
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
final E[] elementData = (E[]) this.elementData;
final int size = this.size;
for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
action.accept(elementData[i]);
}
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

@Override
public boolean removeIf(Predicate<? super E> filter) {
Objects.requireNonNull(filter);
// figure out which elements are to be removed
// any exception thrown from the filter predicate at this stage
// will leave the collection unmodified
int removeCount = 0;
final BitSet removeSet = new BitSet(size);
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
final int size = this.size;
for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
final E element = (E) elementData[i];
if (filter.test(element)) {
removeSet.set(i);
removeCount++;
}
}
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}

// shift surviving elements left over the spaces left by removed elements
final boolean anyToRemove = removeCount > 0;
if (anyToRemove) {
final int newSize = size - removeCount;
for (int i=0, j=0; (i < size) && (j < newSize); i++, j++) {
i = removeSet.nextClearBit(i);
elementData[j] = elementData[i];
}
for (int k=newSize; k < size; k++) {
elementData[k] = null; // Let gc do its work
}
this.size = newSize;
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
modCount++;
}

return anyToRemove;
}

@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public void replaceAll(UnaryOperator<E> operator) {
Objects.requireNonNull(operator);
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
final int size = this.size;
for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
elementData[i] = operator.apply((E) elementData[i]);
}
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
modCount++;
}

@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public void sort(Comparator<? super E> c) {
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
Arrays.sort((E[]) elementData, 0, size, c);
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
modCount++;
}

forEachreplaceAllsort比较好理解,都是直接遍历数组,执行函数式接口的方法。
removeIf其实也一样,只是逻辑比较漂亮,想分析一下。
先遍历数组,执行函数利用bitSet标记要清除的元素,然后再进行遍历数组,筛除需要删除的元素(发现没啥好解释的,大家看源码体会代码的艺术吧)。

结尾

剩下的源码也就是ArrayList的几个内部类了,我打算放在第二章来分析。